The principle of plasma arc machining is shown in the figure. The basic arrangement for a plasma arc cutting torch, similar to the plasma arc welding torch, is shown in figure 1071. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It mentions advantages of plasma arc weldingcutting and disadvantages of plasma arc weldingcutting. As we give the power supply to the system, an electric arc develops between the cathodic tungsten electrode and an anodic nozzle. Plasma arc machining is a metal removal process in which the metal is removed by focusing a highvelocity jet of high temperature 11,000c. Pdf experimental investigation of the plasma arc cutting. Electrochemical machining ecm is a machining process in which electrochemical process is used to remove materials from the workpiece. Typical materials cut with a plasma torch include steel, stainless steel, aluminum, brass and copper, although other conductive metals may be cut as well. Plasmaarc welding is a substitute of tig arc process, offering greater welding speed and better weld quality, for welding thin metal section current at 0. In this study 12 mm plate thickness hardox400 has been cut by high tolerance voltage, cutting speed, and plasma gas flow rate included as main parameters in the analysis and their effect on unevenness of cut surface is evaluated. Manufacturing processes pam, plasma arc machining, plasma arc machining advantages, plasma arc machining advantages and disadvantages, plasma arc machining applications, plasma arc machining diagram, plasma arc machining pdf, plasma arc machining ppt, plasma arc machining process, plasma arc machining working principle leave a comment. Melting rates can be as high as 1 kg h 1 kw 1 with torches up to 80 kw 800 a at 100 v.
Slag resolidified parts of molten metal that adheres to the underside of the cut. A laser beam is a nonconventional machining method in which the operation performed by the laser. Plasma arc cutting process and equipment considerations. Pam is a method of cutting metal with a plasma arc, or tungsten inertgas arc, torch. The figure depicts how one matter is obtained from the other and vice versa. It is mostly used for the metals that cannot be cut by an oxyacetylene torch.
Today we will learn about plasma arc welding principle, types, working, equipments, application, advantages and disadvantages with its diagram. Plasma arc cutting pac is a thermal cutting process that makes use of a constricted jet of hightemperature plasma gas to melt and separate cut metal. The plasma arc process has always been seen as an alternative to the oxyfuel process. Plasma cutting can be use for precision cutting on gauge material up to 6 thick stainless. At the bottom of the articles you can easily download pdf. Plasma arc machining process, diagram, advantages and. Plasma arc welding is a liquid state welding process in which, the metal to metal joint forms in molten state. The process is different from electric discharge, electron beam, laser and plasma arc machining in that the process does not. Since no heat is applied on the materials, cut edges are clean. Plasma arc cutting torches are typically designed with safety interlock systems that turn off the machine if operators loosen the shield cup or if the tip touches the electrode inside the nozzle. Nov 05, 2017 this channel is formed by faculty from bit to enhance the knowledge of students towards technical and fundamentals plasma arc machining is used for variety of industrial application. Oct 15, 20 the energy of the plasma jet and thus the temperature is dependent upon the electrical power employed to create arc plasma.
Control consoles for pac may contain solenoid valves to turn gases and cooling water on and off. Plasma arc machining plasma is defined as the gas, which has been heated to a sufficiently high temperature to become ionized. An arc discharge is characterized by a lower voltage than a glow discharge and relies on thermionic. This is because the holes in the swirl ring produce a swirl in the plasma jet. Ppt plasma arc cutting powerpoint presentation free to. In this part of the series the process fundamentals are described with emphasis being placed on the operating features and the advantages of the many process variants. The plasma arc machining process is used for cutting alloy steels, stainless steel, cast iron, copper, nickel, titanium, and aluminum, etc. The process used thermal energy to remove material from a metallic surface. Plasma arc machining system setup consists of different subsystems such as power supply unit, plasma gas and shielding gas supply unit, plasma torch, cooling unit and control unit. Plasma arc cutting equipment machine cuts through metal workpiece, creating. Plasma arc cutting system plasma, waterjet and laser. Electron beam machining ebm introduction electron beam machining is a thermal process used for metal removal during the machining process. Plasma arc machining pam plasma arc machining is a nontraditional thermal process.
Machine tool electricaldischarge machining edm britannica. There are lots of other considerations that i will address later, such as swirling gases, kerf. In this type of winding, there are three types of gas. Plasma cutting function, advantages and disadvantages. A highvelocity jet flow of hot ionized gas melts the metal and then removes the molten material to form a kerf.
Apr 24, 2020 the plasma arc cutting process cuts metal by melting a section of metal with a constricted arc. Electron beam machining ebm diagram, working, advantages. Plasma passes through a constricting fine bore nozzle, creating a high velocity, hightemperature jet of plasma that transfers the arc to the workpiece, melting away material to form the kerf. A plasma arc cutting machine cutting the internal sections of a metal part. The laser stand for light stimulated emission of radiation. Called pam, this is a method of cutting metal with a plasmaarc, or tungsten inertgasarc, torch. Thermal cutting processes manual plasma arc cutting pac.
A plasma arc is created by electrically heating a gas to a very high temperature. Apr 20, 2020 nitrogen and hydrogen are most commonly used. Plasma arc welding is a liquid state welding process in which, the metal to metal joint forms in molten. An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces a prolonged electrical discharge. The plasma arc welding is method wherever a coalescence is generated with the temperature which is developed from a special setup between a tungsten alloy electrode and the watercooled nozzle non transferred arc or between a tungsten alloy electrode and the job transferred arc. Edm involves the direction of highfrequency electrical spark discharges from a graphite or soft metal tool, which serves as an electrode, to disintegrate electrically conductive materials such as hardened steel or carbide. Basically, plasma arc machining pam is a metal cutting process where metals are cut with plasma arc, tungsteninertgas arc or a torch. Plasma arc cutter equipment schematic diagram plasma arc equipment controls. Construction plasma arc machining pam the machining of the plasma arc requires of a plasma pistol. Today we will learn about laser beam machining principle, working, equipments, application, advantages and disadvantages with its diagram. For this study the current, standoff distance, cutting speed and gas pressure are referred as process parameters. Plasma cutting can be combined with waterjet or oxy fuel on the same part. The standoff, or torchtowork distance, is less sensitive with plasma but the torch angle when welding parts of unequal thicknesses is more important than with gas tungsten arc.
The cutting action takes place by directing the high velocity plasma stream at the work, thus melting it. Chapter 1 early plasma cutting the plasmaarc cutting process saw its first commercial application in the early 1960s. In plasmaarc welding paw is an arc welding process, a concentrated plasma arc is produced and directed towards the weld area. Here today we are going to study definition, working process, principle, advantages, disadvantages, and application note. In the electron beam machining process, a high velocity focused beam of electrons are used to remove the. As shown in the figure, there are four types of matter solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Plasmaarc machining pam employs a highvelocity jet of high temperature gas to melt and displace material in its path.
The process is different from electric discharge, electron beam, laser and plasma arc machining in that the process does not depend on heating of the workpiece to the point of evaporation. To order to melt and transfer material in its direction, plasma arc welding requires a highlevel hightemperature gas jet. So those are some of the basics of plasma cutting an arc carried in a stream of gas from an electrode through an orifice and then into the conductive metal that is being cut. The plasma cutting process is described covering process characteristics, power source, cut edge quality and process variants dual gas, water injection, water. Like a router, the direction of travel the plasma torch takes will affect the cut quality. Laser beam machining is a nonconventional machining method. Following are the disadvantages of plasma arc cutting. Plasma arc machining process does high temperature and high velocity contracted arc through an amount of gas between the electrode and the work material to be inscribe. In the process, workpiece is taken as anode and tool is taken as cathode. Dec 12, 2019 the plasma welding process does respond differently to these variables than does the gas tungsten arc process. The cutting is faster about 5 to 10 times than oxyfuel.
Working principle of pam in the plasma arc machining process, the material is removed by directing a highvelocity jet of high temperature 1c to 28,000c ionized gas on the workpiece. Plasma arc machining pam pam is a method of cutting metal with a plasma arc, or tungsten inertgas arc, torch. An electric arc generated from the external power supply is then introduced to this high pressured gas flow, resulting in what is commonly referred to as a. If electromagnetic disturbances are detected then it shall be the responsibility of the user to resolve the situation with the technical assistance of the manufacturer. Water jet machining water jet cutting can reduce the costs and speed up the processes by eliminating or reducing expensive secondary machining process. Plasma arc cutting 1 plasma arc cutting meng 439 dr. In the electrical beam machining, electrical energy is used to generate the electrons with high energy. The plasma arc formation begins when a gas such as oxygen, nitrogen, argon, or even shop air is forced through a small nozzle orifice inside the torch. Plasma can be defined as a superheated, electrically ionized gas. Esab invented plasma cutting in 1955, and weve never stopped developing ways to. The arc is stable and reaches temperatures as high as 33,000c. A typical value of temperature obtained in a plasma jet torch may be of the order of 50,000f against about 10,000f in ordinary electric welding arc. This is the major difference between a neutral gas and plasma.
Apr 21, 2015 introduction the plasma arc machining process was introduced to the industries in 1964 as a method of bringing better control to the arc welding process in lower current ranges. Plasmaarc machining pam employs a highvelocity jet of hightemperature gas to melt and displace material in its path. However, plasma arc cutting requires higher voltages than welding to start and maintain the arc typically 110 to 400 vdc and touching live. Investigation analysis of plasma arc cutting parameters on. Plasma arc welding paw is an arc welding process similar to gas tungsten arc welding gtaw. Plasma arc machining working principle best engineer youtube. In this machining process metal is removed by melting and vaporization of metal particle from surface of work piece. The photographic view of plasma arc cutting machine is shown in fig. Introduction the plasma arc machining process was introduced to the industries in 1964 as a method of bringing better control to the arc welding process in lower current ranges. Its high accuracy, finishing, ability of machining any hard materials and to produce intricate shape increases its demand. Plasma cutting is the fastest cutting process on carbon steel, aluminum, or stainless steel. The torch produces a highvelocity jet of hightemperature ionized gas plasma that cuts by melting and displacing material from the workpiece. Hand torches can usually cut up to 38 mm thick steel sheet, stronger computer controlled torches can cut up to 150 mm thick steel sheet. May 02, 2017 in plasmaarc welding paw is an arc welding process, a concentrated plasma arc is produced and directed towards the weld area.
Since plasma cutters produce a very hot and very localised cone for cutting, they are very useful for cutting and welding sheets in curved or angled shapes. Laser beam machining is a thermal machining process which uses laser beam to produce heat. Plasma cutting is a process that cuts through electrically conductive materials by means of an accelerated jet of hot plasma. A plasma is an ionized very hot gas composed of nearly same numbers of electrons and ions. The current through a normally nonconductive medium such as air produces a plasma. May 12, 2017 electrochemical machining ecm is a machining process in which electrochemical process is used to remove materials from the workpiece. The finish side of the plasma cut is the right side of the cut when facing the direction of travel. Plasma arc cutting process and equipment considerations twi. As the gas comes in contact with the plasma, there is a collision between the atoms of gas and electrons of an electric arc and as a result, we get an ionised gas. The two electrodes workpiece and tool is immersed in an electrolyte such as nacl. Consequently, common applications for pac consisted of repeating cutting patterns in a massproduction mode. The plasma arc cutting process is illustrated in fig. These methods form a group of processes which removes excess material by various.
Introduction plasmaarc machining pam employs a highvelocity jet of hightemperature gas to melt and displace material in its path. Machine tool machine tool electricaldischarge machining edm. Following are the advantages of plasma arc cutting. Plasma arc machining pam employs a highvelocity jet of high temperature gas to melt and displace material in its path. The plasma arc cutting process cuts metal by melting a section of metal with a constricted arc. In plasma cutting, is formed when an electric arc heats and ionizes a stream of highpressure gas. They usually have flowmeters for the various types of cutting gases used and a water flow switch to stop the operation if cooling water flow falls below a safe limit. Introduction plasma arc machining is a material removal process. The torch produces a highvelocity jet of hightemperature ionized gas called plasma that cuts by melting and. Plasma arc welding is a substitute of tig arc process, offering greater welding speed and better weld quality, for welding thin metal section current at 0. The schematic diagram of plasma arc machining system is shown in fig. Plasma temperatures depend on the process and the production parameters, but can attain 15,000c in the hottest part of a nontransferred arc plasma. Plasma is defined as a gas that has been heated to a sufficiently high temperature to become partially ionized and therefore electrically conductive. The term plasma, as employed in physics, means ionized particles.
The electric arc is formed between an electrode which is usually but not always made of sintered tungsten and the workpiece. In a plasma torch, known as the gun or plasmatron, a volume of gas such as h2, n2, 02, etc. The electrode and workpiece are immersed in a dielectric liquid, and a feed mechanism maintains a spark. An electric arc generated from the external power supply is then introduced to this high pressured gas flow, resulting in what is commonly referred to as a plasma jet. Early plasma cutters were large, slow, and expensive. Plasma arc cutting, also referred to as plasma fusion cutting or plasma cutting, is a fabrication process which employs superheated, ionized gas funneled through a plasma torch to heat, melt and, ultimately, cut electrically conductive material into. Plasma arms have a tungsten electrode located in the house. The effects of plasma arc cutting process parameters on.
Pac is a thermal material removal process that is primarily used for cutting thick sections of electrically conductive materials. Plasma arc machining pam kcg college of technology. The key difference from gtaw is that in paw, by positioning the electrode within the body of the torch, the plasma arc can be separated from the shielding gas envelope. Plasma arc machining process working animation video. However, as with any piece of equipment you need to know how and why it does what it does and the necessary precautions to do the job safely. Ionbeam machining or etching is generally a surface finishing process in which the material removal takes place by sputtering of ions. Advantages and disadvantages of plasma arc welding,cutting. The plasma is sufficiently hot to melt the metal being cut and moves sufficiently fast to blow molten metal away from the cut. Plasma cutting is an effective way to cut thin and thick materials. A plasma cutter will use this electrically conductive gas to transfer energy from a power supply to any conductive material, resulting in a cleaner, faster cutting process than with oxyfuel. This channel is formed by faculty from bit to enhance the knowledge of students towards technical and fundamentals plasma arc machining is used for variety of industrial application. Cut direction must be considered when programming the plasma cutter.923 1032 1295 1223 373 606 1494 738 689 624 535 309 1281 577 988 1294 1027 903 333 458 1587 90 94 1574 800 207 346 725 1206 739 440 1090 1234 695 512 52 268 806 1173 1157 172 1291